Donnerstag, 17. Dezember 2015

La lucha armada del pueblo palestino contra el genocidio sionista-imperialista y dos artículos de Nova Democracia de Brasil: Editorial: Lo que nos trajo la farsa electoral y 80 años del Levante Popular Armado de 1935: Harry Berger y la Revolución Democrática en Brasil

Por su importancia volvemos a publicar lo ya publicado el 2 de diciembre de 2015




Situación Internacional:

Hoy publicamos tres artículos: A diez años de la rebelión de los Balieus, basado en la lucha de los pueblos árabes; el Editorial 161 de la Revista Nova Democracia de Brasil y, por último, A 80 años del levantamiento armado de 1935,Harry Berger y la Revolución Democrática en Brasil, también de la revista antes mencionada. Publicamos de esta forma para servir a la toma de posición de los maoístas sobre la situación actual en el Mundo.

¡Proletarios de todos los países uníos!

A diez años de la rebelión de los Baliues:
La lucha armada del pueblo palestino contra el genocidio sionista-imperialista impulsa el desarrollo de la situación revolucionaria en desarrollo desigual en los países imperialistas

Hace poco hemos celebrado los diez años de la rebelión de los jóvenes de los barrios pobres principalmente de Paris, conocida como La Rebelión de Balieus. Lo hemos hecho desafiando el “estado de emergencia” impuesto por el gobierno del Estado imperialista de Francia. Todos los informes propios y ajenos, pese a los diferentes  puntos de vista, posiciones y concepciones de clase que expresan, coinciden en señalar que las masas de estos barrios tanto en Francia, como en Bélgica, Inglaterra, Alemania y en cualquier otro país de este Continete están cada vez más dispuestas a la rebelión. Esto no puede más que alegrarnos y poner nuestro optimismo revolucionario al tope porque brinda magnifícas condiciones para el cumplimiento de la tarea atrasada de la reconstitución de los Partidos Comunistas en estos países. A la vez, es oportunidad para condenar una vez más la agresión imperialista contra los países oprimidos del Medio Oriente (guerra exterior) y la guerra interna contra el pueblo en la misma Francia declarada por el Presidente Holande, como cabeza del imperialismo francés, una de cuyas manifestaciones es el actual “estado de emergencia”.

EL PUEBLO PALESTINO SE HA LEVANTADO CONTRA LA OCUPACIÓN Y EL GENOCIDIO EN LUCHA ARMADA DURANTE TODOS ESTOS 67 AÑOS

El 29 de noviembre, se cumplió 67 años acuerdo del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas de “partición de Palestina en dos Estados, uno judío y otro árabe”, que dejaba “Jerusalén bajo la autoridad de las Naciones Unidas”. El pueblo palestino no aceptó esta división del país y comenzó su Guerra de Resistencia contra esta nueva imposición colonial. Palestina desde la primera Guerra Mundial estuvo bajo el régimen colonial del imperialismo británico (mandato británico), que sucedió a la ocupación por el imperio otomano.

Con este nefasto acuerdo se abrió una nueva etapa de agresión imperialista encabezada por los Estados Unidos contra los países árabes, de agresión imperialista-sionista, lo que se denomina “ conflicto árabe-israelí”.  

El 14 de mayo de 1948, los últimos soldados británicos abandonaron Palestina y los sionistas crearon  el Estado de Israel. Luego siguió la llamada primera guerra árabe-israelí. Los sionistas con el apoyo imperialista resultaron vencedores y vino el alto al fuego con lo cual éstos ocuparon no sólo la parte que señalaba la nefasta resolución del Consejo de Seguridad, sino también más del 50% del territorio, que la misma dijo asignar al pueblo palestino. El otro 50 por ciento del territorio fue partido en dos: Gaza (bajo administración de Egipto) y la región occidental del Río Jordán o Cisjordania (bajo administración de Jordania). 

Intervención de la ONU para separación de fuerzas, es decir para consolidar la situación ganada por el agresor. Millones de palestinos fueron arrojados de sus tierras por la fuerza directa del invasor o por el terror y pasaron a la condición de refugiados sin patria y sin derecho al retorno, que se les niega hasta ahora. Mientras el flujo continuo de invasores sionistas fue asegurada por la llamada “ley del retorno” del Estado de Israel de 1950. “Retorno” de quienes nunca habian vivido allí. Con todo esto, se aseguraron el cambio del peso poblacional a su favor y los soldados para las guerras de agresión, ya que las armas se la proveen los imperialistas. 

En 1956 y 1957 se produjo una nueva guerra de los sionistas contra los palestinos y ocupación de Gaza y la rivera Occidental del Jordán y el Canal de Suez, que luego fue ocupado por Francia e Inglaterra. Los imperialistas Yanquis los sacaron (hecho conocido como el incidente del Canal de Suez, dos contradicciones y tres fuerzas, Presidente Mao). Ese hecho fue como un ensayo de lo que pretendían hacer más adelante.

  En junio de 1967 se produjo el ataque siniestro de Israel contra Egipto, Siria y Jordania (la Guerra de los Seis Días) cuya Resistencia militar fue aplastada y el 11 de junio se firmó otro alto al fuego que determinó la ocupación de la península del Sinaí(Egipto), “Los Altos del Golán” (Siria), la Franja de Gaza y Cisjordania y Este de Jerusalén (Palestina) y sur de Líbano. Con lo cual Palestina pasó a ser ocupada militarmente (ocupación colonial) por el Estado sionista de Israel, así como los Altos del Golán y parte del Líbano.

La guerra, la agresión, la provocación continua y el genocidio sionista-imperialista contra los pueblos árabes y especialmente el pueblo palestino es una constante desde 1948 a la fecha. En 1973 se produjo la conocida como guerra de Ion-Kipur con derrota de Egipto y Siria y ocupación del Golán hasta la fecha.  Cada guerra de agresión sionista siempre ha sido acompañada la “intervención diplomática del imperialismo yanqui”, a través de su instrumento el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU, para “separar a las partes”. Es decir, para reconocer las conquistas sionistas y continuar la situación de ni guerra ni paz contra los árabes. Todas las condenas al agresor y sus crímenes de guerra han sido vetado por los imperialistas yanquis en este “Consejo de Seguridad”. Todos sus crímenes permanecen impunes.

GUERRA DE AGRESIÓN IMPERIALISTA EN EL MEDIO ORIENTE Y LA LUCHA DEL PUEBLO PALESTINO

Los llamados “acuerdos de paz”: “Los acuerdos de Campo David de 1979” entre Israel y Egipto, apadrinados por el imperialismo yanqui (Carter), fue considerado por la mayoría de los pueblos árabes como una vil traición. Israel devolvió el Sinaí a Egipto y éste ejerce desde allí la labor de policía del ocupante sionista-imperialista. Así se rompió el frente de los países árabes contra el Estado de Israel y contra la ocupación de Palestina. Además, están los “Acuerdos de Oslo” o “negociaciones árabes-israelí e inicio de la autonomía palestina” entre el gobierno de Israel y la OLP. “Acuerdos” que no pusieron fin a la ocupación sionista y que ya el año 2000 se dieron por fracasados. Lo que queda es el cautiverio de la Franja de Gaza y el crecimiento exponencial de los asentamientos en Cisjordania y Jerusalén. ! Ojo! En lugar de una “autoridad palestina”, dos porque los sionistas en un momento fomentaron el desarrollo de Hamas para dividirlos. Estos acuerdos están ligados con los intentos de los imperialistas yanquís de separar la lucha palestina del conjunto de la lucha de los pueblos árabes en el Medio Oriente.

Por ello, es necesario al menos mencionar, que en 1991 se inicia la actual etapa de la guerra de agresión imperialista encabezada por el imperialismo yanqui en colusión y pugna con la otra superpotencia atómica Rusia y las otras potencias imperialistas contra los países oprimidos del Medio Oriente, por nuevo reparto: con la guerra contra Irak.

 Luego seguirán la invasión de Afganistán (2001 que dura hasta la fecha), nuevamente la guerra y ocupación de Iraq en 2003 que continua, la guerra contra Libia, hasta el sur del Sahara en África encabezada por Francia y la actual de Siria.

Los imperialistas yanquis, para su agresión contra estos países oprimidos, han contado principalmente con el servicio de sus lacayos de Israel, Arabia Saudita, Egipto y Turquía. Los gobiernos lacayos de los Estados terrateniente-burocráticos árabes como dicen los comentaristas han tenido que hacer “un difícil equilibrio” entre su confesión del islam-sunita  y su servicio a la agresión imperialista (“infieles” o “cruzados”).

 Siria,por su parte, no ha firmado ningún acuerdo de paz con Israel y ha tratado de presentarse siempre como el representante de la causa árabe y a favor del pueblo palestino apoyando a Hamas palestino y el Hezbollah libanés. En 1979 fue puesta en la lista negra del Departamento de Estado yanqui acusada de albergar a estos grupos y a la Jihad islámica, el Frente Popular para la liberación de Palestina y el Fatah-intifada. En 1996 se negó a condenar  los ataque suicidas de Hamas contra civiles en Israel. 

Pero después, aún cuando Asad seguía manteniendo la retórica pro palestina para asegurarse también el apoyo en el propio país de población mayoritariamente sunita, “se unió a las condenas formales del presidente egipcio Hosni Mu- barak y del príncipe Abdala de Arabia Saudita (reunión de Sharm al-Sheij del 10 de mayo de 2002) ante “toda forma” de violencia, y ante los ataques suicidas palestinos contra la población civil israelí”. Más controvertido ha sido todavía el papel del gobierno shiita del Estado terrateniente-burocrático de Iran con respecto a la agresión imperialista contra Afganistrán e Iraq pues hizo una serie de acuerdos bajo la mesa con el que llaman "el gran satán" imperialista yanqui. Como se reproduce en la actualidad. Aunque la retórica prop palestina siempre la han mantenido.

En marzo de 2003 , el gobierno de Siria trató de formar un frente árabe contra la agresión del imperialismo yanqui a Iraq, pero los otros países de la Liga Àrabe “como Egipto,Kuwait, Qatar, los Emiratos Árabes Unidos y Arabia Saudita y apoyaron la invasión de iraq.  Siria rechazó las propuestas de estos países que sugerían que la liga Árabe avalara la dimisión de Saddam Hussein, que, para Damasco, significaban encubrir la invasión angloamericana. Para la administración de George w. Bush, Siria se convirtió en una amenaza para la paz y la seguridad internacionales” (El eje tripartita sirio-saudita-egipcio y la política de poder de Siria 1991-2007,Marta tawil,El Colegio de México )

LUCHA DEL PUEBLO PALESTINO Y LOS PUEBLOS ÁRABES Y SU REPERCUSIÓN EN LA SITUACIÓN REVOLUCIONARIA EN DESARROLLO DESIGUAL

No pretendemos mencionar aquí toda la larga e interminable lista de agresiones y crímenes cometido por los sionistas de Israel como instrumento del imperialismo, principalmente yanqui, contra el pueblo palestino y demás pueblos árabes, sólo hemos mencionado las más relevantes para entender el llamdo conflicto árabe-israeli, la situación actual  en el Medio Oriente y el desarrollo de la lucha de resistencia palestina y de los demás pueblos de la región, así como su repercusión en la conciencia de miles millones de oprimidos del mundo y, más concretamente, en los barrios pobres de estos países imperialistas por ser más cercanos con la brega y pedecimientos de este pueblo heroico.

IMPUNIDAD Y GENOCIDIO: Por eso, es necesario agregar algo más. En septiembre de 1982 las Fuerzas Armadas de Israel dirigidas por el general Sharon, en medio de la guerra civil libanesa, cercaron en las afueras de Beirut los campos de refugiados palestinos de Chatila y Sabra para que los falangistas cristianos libaneses cumplan la tartea de asesinar a miles de refugiados. 

Dice una crónica: “Entre los días 16 y 18 de septiembre de 1982 y como resultado de una conspiración urdida por los jefes del Ejército israelí de ocupación, los campamentos fueron invadidos por bandas criminales que, con amplio respaldo logístico de las tropas sionistas -incluyendo una profusa iluminación de los campamentos con luces de Bengala- procedieron a masacrar a la inerme población civil. Esa población civil era en su mayoría ancianos, mujeres y niños, provocando un número de víctimas fatales las que, según la procedencia de la información, varía entre los 1.500 y los 3.000. En su furia homicida los criminales no respetaron ni a los animales domésticos y con idéntica saña ametrallaron caballos y perros. Luego procedieron a derrumbar viviendas para sepultar a las víctimas entre los escombros”. Genocidio con miles de víctimas sin castigo para los responsables, Sharón llegó ha ser, algún tiempo después, Primer Ministro de Israel y se paseó de la mano de todos los dirigentes imperialistas, hasta que se pudrió solito.

Por eso, cabe mencionar la última guerra de Israel contra el Líbano en 2006, porque significó una derrota política y moral del Estado sionista y sus Fuerzas Armadas a manos de Hezbollah, esto es una gran victoria guerrillera para la resistencia de los pueblos árabes. Pese a que los sionistas mataron en esta Guerra 1200 civiles, de los cuales un tercio fueron niños, miles de heridos civiles e inmensas pérdidas materiales para el Líbano. 

El pueblo palestino se ha levantado contra la ocupación y el genocidio en lucha armada durante todos estos 67 años, como en las conocidas Primera y Segunda Intifada, lucha que no puede ser cesada jamás. ¡ Cómo será cuando llegen a encarnar el maoísmo y constituyan su Partido Comunista! Con seguridad, no habrá fuerza en el mundo que los pueda detener en el camino de la revolución y su liberación definitiva.

 EL RÉGIMEN COLONIAL Y DE OCUPACIÓN MILITAR EN LA ACTUALIDAD: Los sionistas aplican, ahora en forma más redoblada e impune, el  apartheid y los ataques a los lugares considerados santos por el Islam como  la Mesquita Al Aqsa en Jerusalén; incrementa la detención y ejecución de jóvenes y niños; han autorizado a la policía a disparar lo que ha llevado a la práctica de las ejecuciones sumarias; nuevas leyes Israelíes han autorizado la destrucción punitiva de viviendas contra los patriotas que son acusa dos de “terrorismo”. Cientos de beduinos son expulsados de sus casas y tierras y se han construido por parte de los sionistas 340 nuevos asentamientos judíos en el área de Jerusalén que se suman a los innumerables ya construídos aqui y en toda Cisjordania. Desde octubre de 2015 han sido asesinados más de  100 palestinos y más de 1,000 han sido herido en acciones represivas de las fuerzas armadas o de los colonos israelíes.

EL GRAN DESPOJO: Como vemos el gran despojo del pueblo palestino continua hasta la actualidad, “el patrón de tenencia de la tierra ya había comenzado a cambiar desde 1948, pero la expoliación fue más brutal desde 1967. A partir de entonces la transferencia forzada de tierras, seguida por la demolición de las casas y la ocupación militar, fue precedida por el establecimiento sistemático de asentamientos de colonos judíos, cuando se produce el “retiro unilateral” en 2005, los asentamientos ya suman 21, con 8 692 colonos. El gobierno de Israel justifica la existencia de los asentamientos en la función de “seguridad” que cumplen. Desde la perspectiva de los domina-dos, han servido para fragmentar el territorio y dificultar la comunicación entre la población palestina” (AlgunAs considerAciones sobre gAzA WildA Western Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México)

UNA LISTA INTERMINABLE DE CRÍMENES IMPERIALISTA-SIONISTAS. Todos esto son nuevas cifras que se suman a la larga lista de crímenes de las autoridades de ocupación contra el pueblo palestino y los pueblos árabes. Es contra nosotros mismos como parte de los pueblos oprimidos del mundo. La lista de agravios es interminable, así:

“ La operación Plomo fundido de las fuerzas militares israelíes en Gaza al finalizar la tregua con Hamas (Movimiento islámico de resistencia) llevada a cabo del 27 de diciembre de 2008 al 21 de enero de 2009, provocó la muerte de 1 366 palestinos, de los cuales 430 eran niños y 111 mujeres; hubo ataques posteriores al retiro de las tropas. el 28 de enero de 2009, la cifra de heridos ascendía a 5 830, entre ellos 1 870 niños y 800 mujeres, y más de 100 personas desaparecidas durante elconflicto, según indica el reporte oficial citado por Unocha.3 los recuentos del centro por los derechos Humanos al-Mezanson ligeramente inferiores, ya que el reporte cubre hasta el 18 de diciembre e incluye otra información sobre los muertos: 127 ancianos, 235 combatientes ―27 de los cuales no estaban armados ni comprometidos en la lucha― y 210 policías e integrantes delaparato de seguridad que cumplían sus actividades regulares y que no estaban involucrados en ninguna actividad de combate.4 A su vez, fuentes israelíes reportan tres muertos y 182 heridos desde el 27 de diciembre a consecuencia de los cohetes disparados desde Gaza, y otros 11 soldados muertos y 339 heridos durante las hostilidades contra Gaza.¿Qué nos dicen estas cifras? ¿cómo interpretar estas muertes?(…) evidencian la enorme disparidad ―militar, económica, tecnológica― entre el estado de israel y la franja de Gaza; ponen de manifiesto las políticas de exterminio y el terrorismo de estado, es decir, remarcan que no se trata de un hecho aislado sino de una política contra la población de Gaza (Asia y Àfrica Actuales, Algunas Consideraciones Sobre Gaza, Wilda Western , Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México1 Estudios de Asia y África,ISSN (Versión impresa): 0185-0164 bprecia@colmex.mx, El Colegio de México, México, págs. 296 a 298)

CONCLUSIÓN: Estas cifras deben mover a todos aquellos revolucionarios en Europa que no entienden el problema y no expresan un verdadero sentimiento de clase. Todos los hechos expuestos sirven para entender como la acción del imperialismo y de la reacción atiza la resistencia, la revolución, así se va desarrollando la situación revolucionaria,no sólo alli, sino en todo el mundo, y repercute especialmente en los barrios pobres de Europa en los Balieus de Francia y Bélgica, como en Alemania, Inglaterra, etc. 

Ver lo anterior junto con la situación en que se encuentran sometidas estas masas en el mismo país imperialista. Masas en gran cantidad procedentes de estos mismos países del Medio Oriente.
Todo, lo que hemos venido relatando lo más escuetamente posible, contribuye a generar un creciente odio de estas masas hondas y profundas contra el imperialismo y toda su maquinaria de opresión estatal. Contra todas esas leyes que como producto de la mayor crisis imperialista y la mayor reaccionarización del Estado burgués se han ido dando durante todo este tiempo.

Las masas reaccionan contra toda esa política de “ley y orden”, de “tolerancia cero”, de la denominada “segurización de la política” imperialista, dirigida a reprimirlas  porque son pobres, porque como tales significan una gran amenaza para el viejo orden, para el Estado burgués imperialista, privándolas de derechos y grantías que pretenden regir para todos.

 Miseria creciente de las masas y privación de derechos. Esto acicatea más a estas masas. Los lleva a desarrollar su conciencia espontánea y por eso se muestra la gran disposición de estas masas a la violencia. Las impulsa a las explosiones expontánea y demás. Esto no es malo, esto bueno, es el aspecto positivo de todo lo que está aconteciendo por acá y por acullá.

¿Qué nos corresponde? Ante ello, lo que corresponde es ir armados del maoísmo al encuentro del propio movimiento de las masas con nuestra ideología y política de clase rechazando ir detrás de las consignas de guerra imperialista no sólo en el exterior sino también en el interior.  Hay que denunciar la ocupación militar del país, uno de cuyos pasos es el “estado de emergencia”. Ir a las masas, unirse a ellas, vivir con ellas y luchar con ellas, sólo así será encarnado el maoísmo en su seno y se estará avanzando en el camino de la reconstitución del Partido Comunista. Recordar lo dicho por el sabio Arquímides en la antiguedad: “Dadme una palanca y removeré el mundo”.

Un ex combatiente del levantamiento de los judíos del Geto de Varsovia contra el genocidio nazi caracterizó al Estado sionista de Israel como "un portaviones del imperialismo yanqui en medio del océano de los pueblos árabes". Son 67 años de genocidio sionista-imperialista contra el pueblo palestino y los pueblos árabes de la region. Son 67 años de Resistencia contra la ocupación exrtranjera del país, por la liberación nacional de los palestinos, esto es, por la revolución de nueva democracia del pueblo palestino que se culminará de todas maneras con guerra popular.

Para terminar, en reciente comunicado el Frente de Defensa de las Luchas del Pueblo-Ecuador (COMBATIR AL FASCISMO Y AL IMPERIALISMO EN CUALQUIER LUGAR DEL PLANETA, octubre de 2015), que nosotros difundimos en español y alemán,  escribió: "... (contra) la renovada campaña de exterminio del pueblo palestino en manos del sionismo internacional también auspiciado por el imperialismo yanqui. Anteponer a esta guerra injusta, guerra justa, ha sido la dinámica del pueblo palestino. Y hay que reconocer ante los ojos del mundo la valiente resistencia de este pueblo que se ha dado modos de resistir estoicamente la agresión de una potencia mundial que no ha encontrado, ni siquiera en el vil asesinato selectivo o colectivo, la fórmula para doblegar a un pueblo que clama y defiende su derecho a existir de la única manera como saben hacerlo los pueblos dignos: LUCHANDO... Que esta sangre del pueblo no sea absorbida por los reformistas para levantar su perorata de diálogo y paz. Que la sangre derramada por estos nuevos mártires del pueblo sea el fermento para fortalecer la Guerra Popular en Turquía y la definitiva liberación del pueblo kurdo. Que esta sangre sea fermento de resistencia en Palestina y que su lucha sea abrazada militantemente por los pueblos oprimidos del mundo." Nosotros compartimos este correcto punto de vista.
AND
Noviembre de 2015



Importantes artículos de la Revista Nova Democracia de Brasil  como parte de nuestra sección sobre situación internacional:

Editorial: Lo que nos trajo la farsa electoral
Traducción Enrique Chiappa

El último día 26 de octubre marcó un año de la realización de la segunda vuelta de la elección presidencial de 2014. Fatídico acontecimiento para el pueblo brasileño, ya que el PT se mantuvo en la gerencia del viejo Estado brasileño, utilizándose de su fraudulento arsenal electorero compuesto de mentiras, demagogia y falsificaciones. Eso no quiere decir que sus contendientes no estuviesen a la altura de participar de un deprimente espectáculo en el cual valores como decência, ética y moral, hipócritamente estimados por la burguesía, fuesen totalmente despreciados.


Pasado un año, estando el país hundido en una profunda crisis política, económica, social y moral y considerando la condición semicolonial/semifeudal del país, no es difícil localizar sus fundamentos, estableciendo como marco el día 26 de octubre de 2014, día de la segunda vuelta de la farsa electoral.

Una crisis de representatividad, que conviene recordar, Dilma Rousseff fue proclamada electa con 54.501.118 votos donde el conjunto del electorado era de 142.821.358 electores, o sea, por una minoría de los brasileños aptos a votar, pues la mayoría votó en Aécio, blanco, nulo o se abstuvo, en un total de 88.320.240.

Examinándose el mérito de su votación podemos analizarla de la siguiente forma: electores que creyeron en las propuestas del PT divulgadas en el programa electoral de que daría proseguimiento al programa de aceleración del crecimiento, invirtiendo cada vez más en infraestructura y en programas sociales. No haría ajuste fiscal y no retiraría derechos de los trabajadores, ni colocaría el país en recesión; electores que no querían votar en el PT, pero tampoco querían votar en Aécio, por rechazar a él y a su PSDB y porque, según el PT, él haría un ajuste fiscal, colocando el país total y completamente en las manos de los banqueros, provocando recesión y retirando derechos de los trabajadores. Están incluidos ahí electores influenciados por la “izquierda” electorera que, aun habiendo hecho campaña contra el PT en la primera vuelta, siguieron en su oportunismo indicando el “voto útil” a los electores.

Con los votos recién contados, Dilma Rousseff ya anuncia que entregará el control de la economía al banquero del Bradesco provocando una tremenda indignación en aquellos que le dieron su voto, pues confiaban en las promesas de que las imposiciones del FMI y del Banco Mundial no serían implementadas. Así, su situación, que ya venía en un creciente y gran descrédito, se hizo insustentable.

Para completar su aislamiento, el PT tuvo su bancada reducida en el congreso nacional, generando una valorización del pase de los parlamentarios de su base aliada, súper reaccionarios y ávidos por más cargos y beneficios. Estos prefirieron someterse al liderazgo de Eduardo Cunha y de Renan Calheiros, conformando el parlamentarismo de ocasión.

Hace un año, el país anda para atrás con desindustrialização, intereses en las alturas, superlucros de los bancos, quiebra de las micros, pequeñas y medias empresas, inflación, desempleo, déficit en las transacciones corrientes y endeudamiento público (bruto) que, en septiembre, alcanzó la cifra de R$ 3,789 billones, lo que corresponde a 66% del PIB, déficit público estimado por la propia gestión petista en más de R$ 50 mil millones, lo que corresponde a 1% del PIB, economía en pedazos. Esta es la situación en que el Brasil fue hundido por la gestión petista, que llevó al extremo la política de sumisión nacional del imperialismo, después de alardear por casi diez años un supuesto “nuevo ciclo” de crecimiento, de haber tornado el país en “clase media” y otros cacareos más.

Trabajadores tirados al desempleo o con sus salarios reducidos según la conveniencia del patronato, aumentando la informalidad y la delincuencia con la contrapartida del aumento de la represión contra el pueblo pobre, principalmente contra los campesinos en lucha por la tierra y en las favelas y periferia de las ciudades.

El festival de delaciones en los procesos de la llamada “Operación Lava Jato” envolviendo cuotas de la burguesía burocrática, políticos del Partido Único, lobistas y burócratas de alto nivel, todos organizados en una cuadrilla comandada por los dirigentes petistas, reveló al país el tamaño de la descompostura, podrecimiento y desfachatez en que se transformó esta sigla.

Fracaso en la política, fracaso en la economía, fracaso en lo social y fracaso moral. Este es el resumen de la trayectoria del mayor de los blufs ocurridos en la historia política de Brasil.

El pueblo brasileño viene vivenciando, a lo largo de su historia, experiencias dolorosas debido a la acción servil al imperialismo de los partidos de las clases dominantes de grandes burgueses y latifundistas. Ha soportado y padecido la miseria y sufrimientos continuos y pagado con su sangre generosa las tentativas de liberarse de este sistema de explotación y opresión. El engaño y la traición ha sido la historia de los partidos que se alzaron a la dirección del viejo Estado o la arrebataron a través de golpes militares. El pueblo brasileño ha conocido, por la experiencia práctica y amarga, la naturaleza de los diversos partidos y está percibiendo que se trata de siglas diversas de un mismo y único partido de las clases dominantes.

En los últimos trece años, él está probando y comprobando cuan verdadera es esta realidad. Evidentemente, hoy está abandonando las ilusiones y con la ayuda de los verdaderos demócratas revolucionarios, a través de varias formas de movilización y de lucha, está procesando importantes lecciones que lo lanzará por la vía de la Revolución de Nueva Democracia, Revolución Democrática, Agraria y Antiimperialista.


80 años del Levante Popular Armado de 1935: Harry Berger y la Revolución Democrática en Brasil
Traducción Enrique Chiappa

En el día 27 de noviembre próximo se completan 80 años del Levante Popular Armado de 1935, evento político revolucionario de gran significado en la Historia de Brasil de forma general y muy especialmente en la historia del movimiento obrero-popular, democrático-revolucionario y de liberación nacional. Sobre el acontecimiento, así expresó magistralmente el gran dirigente comunista brasileño Pedro Pomar en ‘A gloriosa bandeira de 35’: “En ella fueron postulados por primera vez y de manera nueva los problemas esenciales de la revolución brasileña, en la fase actual, mejor caracterizadas sus fuerzas motrices y sus enemigos fundamentales, indicando el camino del frente único y el de la lucha armada, así como revelada la fisionomía de su verdadero dirigente, el proletariado revolucionario, guiado por el Partido Comunista de Brasil. En los embates encarnizados de 35, las fuerzas populares comprendieron que sólo la lucha revolucionaria educa las masas, forja su ánimo combativo, les abre mayor visión de la realidad y le indica la medida de sus propias fuerzas”.

Para celebrar este memorable acontecimiento publicamos tramos de ‘Algunos aspectos de la cuestión de los Soviets en Brasil’, artículo publicado en la edición nº 180, de 1º de mayo de 1935, del periódico A Clase Operaria, órgano central del Partido Comunista de Brasil (P.C.B), firmado por BBB., pseudônimo del gran dirigente comunista internacionalista Arthur Ewert (verdadero nombre de Harry Berger). Detenido después de la derrota del Levante Popular, Harry Berger, que había actuado por muchos años en China y era uno de los cuadros de la Internacional Comunista (IC o Cominter) destacados para dar soporte al P.C.B. en el proceso revolucionario en curso en Brasil, fue sometido a las más bárbaras torturas y resistió bravamente hasta perecer de sus facultades mentales. Pasó 13 años preso en Brasil y falleció en un hospital psiquiátrico en Alemania en 1959.

En honra a la gloriosa memoria de este héroe internacionalista de la lucha de los pueblos y por ocasión de los 80 años del Levante Popular Armado de 1935, cuyo marco es el levantamiento del 3º Regimiento de Infantería de la Praia Vermelha (RJ), en 27 de noviembre de aquel año — emprendido por la Alianza Nacional Libertadora, bajo la dirección del Partido Comunista de Brasil —, adaptamos, con pequeñas adaptaciones gramaticales, este importante documento, cuyo contenido es de gran actualidad y vigencia. El objetivo y brillante artículo trae un profundo análisis de la realidad y establece de forma clara el carácter de la Revolución Brasileña como democrático-burguesa ininterrumpida al Socialismo.

Frecuentemente no prestamos suficiente atención al hecho de que en otro gran país existen Soviets hace varios años, y eso en grandes extensiones territoriales: nos referimos a China. El desarrollo y crecimiento del poder soviético en China tiene especial importancia para nosotros de Sudamérica y de Brasil. Podemos quitar muchos ensañamientos de las grandes luchas revolucionarias en China, que pueden ser aplicadas en mayor o menor grado en Brasil y también a ciertos países sudamericanos.

En primer lugar, el carácter de la revolución en Brasil es el mismo que en China: democrático-burgués. Las primeras fases de la revolución en Brasil consisten en llevar a cabo la revolución agraria y antiimperialista. Lenin señaló que la burguesia no puede llevar hasta el fin la revolución democrática-burguesa. En el proceso de la revolución, la burguesía se vuelve inevitablemente contra las masas, defiende la propiedad capitalista, trata de evitar la revolución agraria, asume compromisos con el imperialismo y pide auxilio del mismo contra la revolución.

La revolución democrático-burguesa y, sobre todo, su transformación en revolución socialista, dependen de las luchas de las amplias masas de Brasil, de los obreros y campesinos, de los soldados, estudiantes, de la juventud, de los intelectuales honestos, de los pequeño-burgueses empobrecidos, etc.

Para el desarrollo victorioso de la revolución democrático-burguesa, no pueden ser utilizadas las viejas formas burguesas del poder estatal, ni tampoco las nuevas. Claro está que esas formas estatales burguesas constituyen los sustentáculos de los explotadores y obstáculos formidables contra el desarrollo progresivo de la revolución. Inclusive en la fase democrático-burguesa de la revolución, las masas deben instituir su propio poder estatal, los Soviets.

La revolución en China demostró claramente la necesidad de la existencia de los Soviets de obreros y campesinos en la etapa democrático-burguesa de la revolución. Al reconocer eso, no debemos perder de vista el hecho de que la revolución democrático-burguesa puede comenzar sin la existencia de Soviets. Este será el caso en que las fuerzas de clase y la conciencia revolucionaria del proletariado no estén aun suficientemente desarrolladas, faltándoles una dirección revolucionaria firme.

En segundo lugar, hay otra cuestión en el establecimiento del poder soviético en Brasil, que presenta mucha semejanza con el desarrollo de China: la gran mayoría del territorio chino está aún en las manos del Kuomintang contrarrevolucionario o bajo el dominio de Japón, Inglaterra, etc. Los Soviets tienen el poder solamente en una pequeña parte y geográficamente, no constituyen un territorio compacto, pues están divididos en un gran número de provincias, a veces separadas unas de las otras por grandes distancias. A pesar de esto, los Soviets de China se han mantenido y aumentado su poder en sus ocho años de existencia. A pesar de la movilización de un millón de soldados contra estos Soviets, no se les puede aniquilar. Los Soviets en China se transformaron en los principales vehículos de la guerra nacional revolucionaria contra el imperialismo japonés y los demás imperialismos; de la defensa de la independencia; de la unidad e integridad de China; de la liberación de las masas trabajadoras chinas. Día a día, los Soviets en China confirman la justeza de las palabras del camarada Stalin: “Sólo los Soviets pueden salvar a China”. Y eso se aplica enteramente a Brasil y Sudamérica.

Otra cuestión semejante a China se presenta en Brasil: ¿las masas de Brasil estarán en condiciones de establecer su propio poder bajo la forma de Soviets a través de TODO el territorio del país en un LAPSO DE TIEMPO CORTO? Naturalmente ese debe ser y es nuestro objetivo, pero no olvidemos, que la URSS atravesó cuatro años de guerra abierta luchando contra movimientos contrarrevolucionarios e intervenciones. En China, los Soviets luchan hace ocho años. En un país de vastas dimensiones como el Brasil, con la gran variedad de condiciones y, además de eso, con la existencia de grandes diferencias en las relaciones de fuerza de las clases enemigas en los diversos estados, la revolución necesitará igualmente de un lapso de tiempo más o menos largo para llegar a establecerse firmemente a través de todo el país.

También aquí la experiencia de China nos muestra que en tal o cual ciudad, puerto, o en la extensión de tal o cual región de la costa, los explotadores de Brasil, apoyados por los salteadores imperialistas, pueden “mantenerse” por más tiempo que los explotadores de otras partes del país. Tenemos que contar con que los imperialistas se esforzarán directamente para mantener las condiciones sociales intolerables del presente, para mantener el sometimiento de Brasil por el imperialismo, para impedir la victoria de la revolución. Pero nuestras posibilidades para romper las maniobras contrarrevolucionarias del imperialismo son muy grandes.

Como somos revolucionarios objetivos, tenemos que tomar en consideración tales posibilidades, pero a la vez no podemos dejar de comprender que el Brasil, con su territorio enorme, presenta las condiciones más favorables para el establecimiento y consolidación del poder soviético en grandes extensiones y conquistará finalmente el poder suficiente para liquidar los explotadores y expulsar el imperialismo.

Ante todo, la revolución democrático-burguesa, bajo la dirección de los Soviets, establecerá bases seguras para la realización de las reivindicaciones económicas y políticas más importantes de la clase obrera, asegurará tierra a los campesinos y abolirá todas las formas de esclavización feudal. Liquidará el yugo del país por el imperialismo confiscando todas las empresas imperialistas, y anulando las deudas externas, abrirá camino para el desarrollo de un Brasil Libre, unido y fuerte, lleno de posibilidades enormes tanto en el terreno económico como político y cultural.  Si supiéramos como conectar las reivindicaciones diarias y las aspiraciones de la juventud e intelectuales, las reivindicaciones, descontento y aspiraciones de los soldados, al descontento y pauperización de la pequeña-burguesía con esta gran perspectiva revolucionaria, levantaremos y organizaremos la gran mayoría de la población. Entonces la revolución en Brasil será invencible.

La gran extensión del país, las malas comunicaciones en el interior del país, todo eso serán ventajas en el comienzo de la revolución porque hará más difícil los movimientos de grandes fuerzas contrarrevolucionarias así como una invasión imperialista extranjera. Por eso será posible, aún con formaciones revolucionarias relativamente pequeñas, hacer retroceder y batir las fuerzas contrarrevolucionarias, consolidar y aumentar tanto las fuerzas como el territorio de los revolucionarios. Ganando con el tiempo la fuerza suficiente para liberar — con el auxilio de los obreros y campesinos de todo el país — el Brasil y sus masas trabajadoras del yugo de la explotación imperialista y feudal. De este modo se aplanará el camino para la transformación de la revolución democrático-burguesa en revolución socialista bajo la hegemonía del proletariado.

Este gran objetivo estratégico determina también nuestra táctica delante de las fuerzas que, siendo opuestas al imperialismo y sus agentes en Brasil, no van, sin embargo, hasta el fin del camino con nosotros. Queremos construir un frente común de combate junto con todos los elementos que están dispuestos a luchar contra el imperialismo, que opinan que Getúlio Vargas y su gobierno son los entregadores de Brasil al imperialismo y a los opresores del pueblo brasileño, que saben que los líderes integralistas son los agentes pagados del imperialismo extranjero y de los grandes capitalistas y latifundistas de Brasil para subyugar por medio de terror los obreros, campesinos, intelectuales y la juventud de Brasil. Estamos dispuestos a formar un frente único con todos aquellos que comparten esas opiniones y están DISPUESTOS A LUCHAR contra esas fuerzas contrarrevolucionarias.

La revolución en Brasil es una revolución nacional antiimperialista. Se propone la confiscación de las empresas imperialistas, la anulación de los préstamos extranjeros, la expulsión de los imperialistas y de sus agentes en Brasil.

La revolución en Brasil es agraria. Se propone la confiscación, sin indemnización, de las tierras de las concesiones extranjeras, de las plantaciones, de las propiedades de los grandes latifundistas, iglesias y órdenes religiosas, para ser distribuidas entre los campesinos.

La revolución en Brasil mejorará las condiciones de los obreros porque confiscará las grandes empresas imperialistas y las grandes fábricas de los demás capitalistas, estableciendo un horario de 6 a 8 horas de trabajo, aumentando los salarios, mejorando las condiciones sanitarias y de vida y aumentando la vida cultural.

La revolución abrirá nuevas posibilidades de vida y de trabajo a la juventud y a todos los intelectuales honestos, actualmente sin trabajo y reducidos a condiciones de vida intolerables.

La revolución en Brasil dará al soldado su verdadero lugar, que es el de defensor del país contra los salteadores imperialistas, el de defensor de los derechos de un pueblo libre, de la revolución. El soldado y el ejército dejarán de ser  instrumentos de opresión del pueblo brasileño bajo el interés exclusivo del imperialismo y de sus agentes en el país.

Estos son los objetivos de la revolución democrático-burguesa en Brasil. Esta revolución se transformará rápidamente en revolución socialista desde que una parte importante y decisiva del país esté en manos del poder obrero y campesino, desarrollando fórmulas de producción socialista en un gran país que posee todo lo que es necesario para la edificação del socialismo y que llegará a ser un punto de apoyo para la transformación de todo el continente sudamericano cuando el futuro poder soviético establezca alianzas seguras y libres con los movimientos nacional-revolucionarios y con los futuros gobiernos revolucionarios de los pueblos indios del Perú, Ecuador, Bolivia, etc., y con el movimiento revolucionario de los trabajadores de Chile, Argentina y de todos los demás países.

El camino para esa finalidad encontraremos en un viraje enérgico y completo de todo el trabajo del Partido. Es necesaria una organización más firme del Partido, aumentar sus organizaciones, el número de miembros, concentrando en los centros vitales de la producción y comunicaciones, superando los métodos de las viejas fórmulas caudillistas en las organizaciones del Partido, creando a la vez cuadros bolcheviques y comités de dirección unidos, disciplinados y firmes.

Penetrar profundamente en las masas. Desarrollar en todas las partes sindicatos de trabajadores. Dirigir cada lucha por las reivindicaciones diarias de las masas conectando esa lucha a las tareas políticas inmediatas en cada estado y con nuestra gran perspectiva revolucionaria.

Aumentar decisivamente el trabajo en el campo entre los campesinos y asalariados agrícolas. Organizar las luchas de los campesinos por sus reivindicaciones inmediatas: contra el pago de los impuestos y deudas, contra la esclavitud feudal, contra los altos arrendamientos y el actual sistema de contratos, conectando estas luchas a la lucha por la división de las tierras de los grandes latifundistas. Además de estas luchas, debemos desarrollar las fuerzas de guerrilleros que, junto con los campesinos, liquidarán el latifundio.

Organizar una espesa red de comités campesinos y ligas locales y de distrito, organizar el trabajo entre las organizaciones campesinas ya existentes. Organizar sindicatos de asalariados agrícolas. Sin este trabajo y sin la firme alianza de los obreros y campesinos, será imposible la victoria de la revolución en Brasil. Debemos aprovechar los profundos enseñamientos de la revolución española, en que uno de los puntos débiles fue precisamente un trabajo insuficiente entre el campesinado.

Berger aún llama la atención para el trabajo del Partido entre los integrantes de las fuerzas armadas (posición sostenida por el P.C.B. en la época, particularmente en cuanto a los soldados, cabos y tenientes, entre los cuales el partido realizaba un amplio trabajo). Y refuerza una vez más la importancia del desarrollo de una poderosa Federación Juvenil Comunista, que se convierta en la gran organizadora de un amplio frente único con las organizaciones juveniles y estudiantiles dispuestas a luchar por la defensa de sus derechos, contra el imperialismo y sus agentes, contra el integralismo y todas las fuerzas reaccionarias (nota de la redacción del AND).

Desarrollar la lucha por la defensa de los derechos populares de las masas y contra la legislación reaccionaria del gobierno de Getúlio Vargas (por la libertad de reunión, prensa y palabra, por el derecho de organización y huelga, por la libertad de los presos sociales, etc.). Utilizar todas las posibilidades para ampliar el trabajo legal y semilegal del Partido, perfeccionando a la vez nuestra organización ilegal.

Estas tareas deben ser llevadas a la práctica con toda firmeza. Sólo actuando así, crearemos las condiciones para dirigir victoriosamente la lucha revolucionaria.

Dienstag, 15. Dezember 2015

THE YANKEE IMPERIALISM IS THE ONLY HEGEMONIC SUPERPOWER AND THE MAIN ENEMY OF THE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD


NEW RELEASE:
THE YANKEE IMPERIALISM IS THE ONLY HEGEMONIC SUPERPOWER AND THE MAIN ENEMY OF THE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD
 
ECONOMIC BASIS OF IMPERIALIST COMPETITION

 We have to see how this competition goes, starting from the economic base, as we will in the following pages. Keeping in mind that the first world is being redefined, which is expressed in the process of sinking of the only hegemonic superpower, US imperialism, in a long but sure process with temporary blooms and relapses; and, in in which the second world imperialist powers are treading its heels. All of this within the overall process of collapse and sweeping away in which imperialism is in by the world revolution, where the Third World is the base.

We, as Chairman Gonzalo teaches us, are in favor of Chairman Mao's theory of the "three worlds are delineated" to set the strategy and tactics of the world revolution and, therefore, are opposed to the Teng´s revisionist theory of the "Three Worlds" which is nothing but to lag behind one of the two superpowers.

 We have to see what impact the global crisis of 2008 and the current relapse has had on the hegemony of US imperialism and on the claims of its rivals; but keeping in mind what was treated before about the process or development of bureaucratic capitalism, which imperialism drives in the oppressed colonial and semi-colonial countries, according to the socioeconomic conditions prevailing there. Everything within the current process of further maturation of the objective conditions for world revolution.

So, first, let's see how inter-imperialist competition is, what the economic basis for US hegemony is.

In this new delivery or continuation of our Notes on the international situation, we continue with what is offered, ie the analysis of the objective situation, exposing economic data set, which show us very clearly how goes the dispute between monopolies and imperialist countries for world domination and, therefore, the economic base of the only hegemony of US imperialism and increased oppression and pillage of the vast majority of countries and people of the world by a small handful of imperialist countries.

Data, that have to be understood in relation to the ones already published, about the process of buroucratic capitalism in world. All this shows, then, that imperialism is increasingly monopolistic, more parasitic and in most advanced rot or decay and sinking hopelessly into a complex series of wars of all kinds. And, after imperialism what is next? Therefore, all of it proves how imperialism mature even more the conditions for the world revolution. Like its been sweep away since the 80’s of the last century. We are at stage of strategic offensive of world proletarian revolution. From here, it expressed, worldwide, the development of the revolutionary situation in uneven development, mainly at the base of the world revolution in the oppressed countries of the Third World, coming to Europe itself. We are at new wave of the world proletarian revolution. In summary: the world revolution, despite its long and hard vicissitudes, can only end in victory wich demands world peoples war. And the hub of the entire situation, as national and international, is the Communist Party, Marxist-Leninist-Maoist, mainly Maoist, militarized to initiate and develop people's war in each country, inseparable and irreconcilably struggling against imperialism, reaction and revisionism.

To do so, we’ll use a recent study about the subject  from Raúl Ornellas (7), to illustrate better the development of the struggle for a new distribution between the imperialists, in relation to changes in economic strength between these, in light of the recent crisis and relapse suffering, which currently do not end up leaving, noting the class limitations of the study, interpreting their results in light of our ideology Marxism-Leninism-Maoism, Gonzalo Thought, calling things by their name and we will synthesize our own point of view about it.

The study cited above, for example, deals with " business competition and world economic leadership contention," based in part "on data for the five hundred largest companies ranked by sales" by the Fortune Global 500 magazine, where "an analysis of the sales and profits by groups of undertakings" is made, ie, the struggle among the largest global monopolies, as part of inter-imperialist competition. This is of utmost importance to understand the changes in the other hill. Lenin taught that "the deepest economic foundation of imperialism is the monopoly", which has been generated by financial capital, "first monopolistic associations divide up domestic market among themselves, then divide the world market directly to each other and among a handful of imperialist countries. " (8)
The study for "five hundred companies" gives the following result:

 "Income Evolution between 1994 and 2008:

Two general trends stand out: the high concentration in the six groups of dominant companies, which have their origin in the United States, Japan, China, Germany, France and England, which account for over 70% of revenues during the study period. The emergence of an incipient diversification of business sources is also observed, reflected in the increased share of the group "Other", which concentrates 27% of the total income of the five hundred in 2008 (...) highlights the predominance of the US business group, which since 1996 has the largest share of the dominant groups, although between 2007 and 2008 it lost dynamism. Correspondingly, the group of Japanese origin suffers a constant crash and lost 60% of its quota. European companies have a stable behavior tends and a slight increase towards the end of the period; the German group has the best performance, with a share of more than 11% of the income of the five hundred in 2008. Undoubtedly the most notable performance is the group of companies of Chinese origin, which within only fifteen years passed from a completely marginal share to the level of the European powers. However, an important asymmetry between the US group and other companies (...) is maintained. "(9)
Here it is necessary to comment briefly on the part of the above quote, saying: "group of Japanese origin suffers a constant crash". On this, we consider that the study does not take into account the income of its subsidiaries operating, for example, as seen in the delivered notes on bureaucratic capitalism, in Southeast Asia, as the income of this group; such as, for example, in Taiwan and South Korea granddaughters or subsidiaries in China, it is counted as if they were "new companies" of the host countries. No one takes into account that with the so called "restructuring of Japanese industry", Japanese imperialism, through the  use of direct investment, loans, technology transfer, especially in Asia,  increased its monopoly position in the world market, increased its power and thus its parasitism, living from the clipping coupons, thereby also deepened its decay, its collapse. And that goes for the case of the group "Other", which according to the statement made by us it does not come to be anything other than affiliates of the largest imperialist or subject to these monopolies, by an intricate web of relationships to the "holding system".

Therefore, this index of "500" does not express to the full extent the accumulated power of the greatest imperialist monopolies. It does not express how power and wealth is concentrated globally more markedly in fewer hands. Therefore, the Ornella´s study, based on this index of "500", we take it as a reference to contrast with other sources that we are quoting here and to better illustrate the findings in each part as we go on.

The increased power of Japanese imperialism shown in our footnotes to bureaucratic capitalism, shows that these imperialists, particularly in Asia, but also in the rest of the world have been able to develop as much as the Yankee monopoly networks or chains with its subsidiaries and other forms of penetration in oppressed countries whose main oppressor is Yankees, all of which occurs within the current stage undergoing imperialism. It is an expression that shows that imperialism is monopolistic, the most parasitic and is sinking deeper. That is, the more it advances in its process the more its own contradictions develop and it sinks further, as demonstrated by each of its cyclical crises within its general and final crisis.

We recall that subsidiaries global growth of the mothers monopolies has been very fast, so between 1946 and 1961 were found 3,550 new subsidiaries (daughters), and from that year until 1996 according to UN figures were created 260,000, which Hübner quotes, who concludes: "While the developed capitalist economies represent the headquarters of the business centers, they give the economies of the Third World and the middle eastern Europe the role of headquarters of their subsidiaries". (10)
The monopoly profits for the period:

(...) Until 2006, the profit concentration in the groups of dominant firms, as in the case of income, is equally marked.  The years 2007 and 2008 show a significant drop in the shares of these groups, except for the Chinese group. By 2008, 48% of the profits, greatly reduced, of the most important companies were generated outside dominant firms groups (...) The share of total profits of the US group is reduced to just 25% in 2007 and 2008, reflecting the depth of the crisis and the breakdown of the financial accumulation mechanisms. It is stressed that even in the midst of what some analysis advertised as the end of the economic supremacy of the United States, its leading-edge companies keep a significant share of the profits. Instead, the group of companies of Japanese origin reached absolute losses in 2008, while the Chinese companies had a growth in their share to reach 12% of all ". (11)

Then Chinese companies begin to decrease even after "the Chinese government injected since 2008 copious amounts of credit in the economy over the past four years. But every year, economic growth has gone down."(12)  Therefore, the corporate debt has immensely increased. These data bring out what´s the current state of the imperialist struggle for economic domination of the world market, where we find the US imperialism dominance and in the struggle for sources of raw materials, the results are not very different. We have to give the corresponding interpretation to the “advance of the Chinese group" or "dominant companies with a Chinese origin", we need to relativize their true economic weight in the light of all data, conclusions which we will extensively discuss in these pages. As for the Chinese firms controlled by the state, now it is spoken of “the rise and fall of the firms under state control" as "PetroChina" mainly by "the decline in commodity prices and the recent decline in sales in emerging markets "(13).

What the imperialism beautifiers, such as the opportunistic Hudson(14) , hold is that the rising prices of "raw materials, mainly oil", will benefit the countries where these sources are located and that it "threats the stability of the world´s economy ".  Such claim is completely overridden since reality is quite different, and most of the benefits, most of the earnings compounded by the rising commodity prices like oil, etc. end up mainly in the multinationals, so to say, in the imperialist countries. This, without counting the enormous benefits that the imperialist states collect from the taxes applied to energy derivatives. The smallest part of the earnings went to the bureaucratic capital "transnationals" of the Third World that show their role as intermediaries for the imperialist capital, dependent or subjected to these same imperialist countries. The imperialist companies, although most of the sources are outside their territories, control the production of products with higher added value and thus, in fierce competition among them, control the main profit source. And this struggle for control, the Yankee imperialism not only maintains but it increases its dominance.

 The current state of the struggle for energy sources and raw materials, according to the study above:

"(...) the extractive activities, especially petroleum refining, have become the activity, undertaken by major companies, with the highest revenues reports. The share of oil refining jumps from 7.8 to 17.7% of the total revenues of the sample between 1994 and 2008 (...) The companies in the United States and England-Netherlands are clearly dominating this activity: they concentrate more than 30% of the total mining activity revenue between 1994 and 2006 (...), their share increased exceeding 40% despite the crisis. Another unusual feature of competition in this activity is that the groups of dominant firms accentuate their control over income, reaching a maximum combined market share of 66% in 2007. Companies from China significantly increased their share of total income (8.7% in 2008) as a result of the high number of overseas acquisitions. These features indicate that the companies from the United States and England-Netherlands compete from a particularly strong position, these countries long ago have managed to control much of the hydrocarbons sources and have the largest processing capabilities (...) the high level of concentration that characterizes the mining activity can be seen: Thirteen companies contribute more than 66% of the total revenue from this activity. Of these, the Americans are the most numerous, with Exxon at its head during twelve of the fifteen years considered. British companies play a primary role in this activity; Royal Dutch Shell narrowly competes with US companies and the BP shows an upward performance until 2004. In recent years, Chinese companies Sinopec and China National Petroleum developed their productive capacities and placed themselves behind the United States and England-Holland´s companies". (15)

 The data shows, as a whole, the role of the Third World, where most of the hydrocarbons sources are, and the role of the  bureaucratic capitalism "transnational", such as "transLatins", etc.
Let’s read:

"(...) From these data, draws attention the limited role of big national producers, Petroleos de Venezuela, Petrobras, Petronas, Pemex, and the absence of corporations of the united Arab emirates. This reveals the control of the transnational on the most profitable segment of refining; leaving domestic companies the role of mere hydrocarbons extractors. " And as a conclusion of this struggle Ornellas says: "In short, competition in the oil and mining activities shows that US companies still have the most important part of the market, which is reinforced by formal and informal partnerships that have been webbed with the Anglo-Dutch companies. The other companies groups concentrate on satisfying their energy needs, as they are dependent on external supplies. This feature centrally concerns the Chinese companies." (16)
The emphasis of the quotation is important because it shows that, in this key economic activity for world domination, US imperialism maintains control and the Chinese imperialists seek to develop to meet their own needs. The difference is important. In September 2013 American oil Exxon Mobil (second place) and Chevron (ninth place) appear among the 10 largest companies in the world by market value. Therefore they are at the head of the oil companies worldwide.

And the struggle for raw materials among the imperialists will intensify and our countries are the spoils of that dispute. That is the imperialist monopolies´ interest and that is their states’ interest, as we read in the quotation of a senior German government official, that we cite to better illustrate this, in this regard, it states:
"Almost half of the 54 states of the African continent are counted as rich in raw materials. Here licenses are awarded in the next ten years for exploration and exploitation for decades, with vast economic, social and environmental consequences (...) all of us in politics, economics and science should not be innocent: the World Trade organization´s (WTO) agreements do not determine, at the end, the rules but only the power of the interests at stake. Not only with authoritarian societies but also with the intended or true friends. While in the past 20 years many people in the economy and politics thought, that row materials security would be reachable only with free trade in the world market, few believe in this now. My position is clear: We need a state policy for raw materials. "(17)

All these facts and figures, as well as the quotation of the representative of German imperialism on the control of resources, teach us what the basis of the imperialist wars of aggression against the oppressed countries is, its true character is that of a predatory war for the new distribution after the bankruptcy of the other superpower, the collapse of the Soviet social imperialist superpower, who is reduced to Russia today, but yet nuclear superpower.
The Yankee imperialism, in collusion and conflict with the other imperialist powers, develops this predatory imperialist war in all the vast war theater ranging from Afghanistan to sub-Saharan Africa, area that would further expand. Wars where our countries are the booty. Which involve the development of two contradictions, ie the worsening of the contradiction between the oppressed nations and imperialist countries; and the third contradiction, the inter-imperialist contradiction.  As Lenin clearly shows "the class character of the struggle" "even if the forms of struggle varies” (18)  and thus we see what the results of almost 25 years of wars are. In addition, the imperialist war of aggression has to affect the imperialist countries themselves, as it is already doing in the class struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie, namely, more mature objective conditions for the task of reconstituting the Communist Parties in the bowels of the imperialist beast.

Let us continue with this international situation radiography, where we will continue proving how the  US imperialism has used its status as a sole hegemonic superpower by economic and extra-economic mechanisms such as the "neo-liberalism" and the war of aggression, to take advantage of their rivals, continuing as well with its collapse, in the cited study we read:
Competition in financial activities:

"Given the depth of the crisis, competition in today's financial activities is crucial (...) In the face of catastrophic interpretations, emphasizes the strengthening of the US-based banks, whose share in the total revenues is steadily increased between 1994 and 2002 to stabilize around 16% in the recent years. Although this performance is not a crucial competitive advantage, it does indicate that, through deregulation and concentration, US banks have overcome their lag behind Asian and European banking, to emerge as the dominant group in this activity. The 2008 data reflects the first bankruptcies and revenue reductions occurred since 2007, although it is expected further adjustments for 2009 ".

In this regard we say that in his capacity as hegemonic superpower US imperialism imposed on them the other "financial deregulation" despite their efforts to counter the advantage of US imperialism in the framework of agreements on "Basel" (now already in the "Basel III") And nothing happens! Because the effectiveness of these "agreements" is similar to the "WTO agreements" as the representative of the German government in the appointment (No. 17), which we repeat in part: "agreements ... determined not to end the game rules but the power of the interests at stake. "
The study to draw corresponding conclusions, took the data of competition in the financial activity until 2008. In the following years this trend continued. In 2013, we read in the European edition of WSJ that the result is that "banks (US) who were giants before the crisis are now even bigger." (19)

Continuing with the Ornellas analysis:
"The British and French banks consolidate their shares in total revenues, with which they place themselves near the US banks, while the group of German origin back up in their participation. The Chinese banks increase their presence in recent years with 7% of total revenue in 2008, although its average share for the period is 4%. This increase reflects the balances of the financial crisis. "

 Let’s also see in the light of these facts, the interimperialist contradictions in the "European Union". The Chancellor Merkel´s budgetary savings plans, representing the interests of German imperialism, shows the fight in regards to banking and other financial services control. In the aforementioned WSJ article, regarding the banking union proposed by German to the states of the Union as a solution to the problems created by the financial system, a Brussels official said:

"The basic idea is that the monetary union can only be stable if the banking system is international," says Mr. Wolff (...) "The only possibility to quickly move capital from north to south is through the taking of Spanish and Italian banks, by Germany or Austria´s banking institutions, said an official in reference to the plan."(20)
This is the struggle within the EU among imperialist banking monopolies and the countries to which they belong. And that's the basis of what is in the news. But let us continue with Ornellas:

 "These trends provide an important hue to the idea of an unstoppable rise of Chinese enterprises. At least in the financial sector, it’s strengthening finds strong obstacles and notes the importance of the accumulated knowledge and the installed capacity of large corporations in the United States, Europe and Japan. Competition between TNCs allows contrasting the merely rentier activity which means buying debt titles with the  complex productive activities such finance. From this perspective, Chinese capitalism still stands some productive revolutions behind its rivals”. (21)

When we deal specifically with China and "merely rentier activity which means buying debt ", we will see the domestic and global implications of this. For now, to get more accurate conclusions about changing power relations among the superpower and the imperialist powers, for redistribution, as taught by Lenin, and specifically to answer: why is China at present time forced to act as a "soft power" at the level of world politics?, Let's weigh some more data on other activities, which gives us the cited study.
The commerce competition:

"In trade, the first distinctive feature is that the groups of dominant firms account for 90% of revenues and leave little room for other competitors. US dominance is undeniable: their companies account for over 50% of the total revenue from 2003 and even so in 2008, the year of crisis. This has as a corollary the constant decline in the share of companies of Japanese origin, going from 59 to 9% between 1994 and 2003, to slightly increase to 13% of the total revenue in 2008. Among the European powers, French companies show the best performance to almost triple its share in total revenues. Chinese companies have a rising trend, but its 5.3% share in 2008 does not seem to correspond to the importance of the "new workshop of the world".(22)
This panorama of competition in the intermediation trade activity points out the importance of foreign capital in the vigorous growth of the Chinese economy. So what national financial records recorded as Chinese exports reappears in the transnational trade companies’ distribution channels, supporting the positions of US, Japanese and European companies"  Ornellas, cited study (23).

Regarding the "share of the companies of Japanese origin" the shown percentages reveals only the appearance, hiding the true power of these companies through the FDI, as already noted above. The underlines in the quote above is important in terms of the real world economic force of China, to illustrate this situation, we quote the results of a "microeconomic" study on the export of a "high technology" commodity “made in China ", which states:
“A micro-economic analysis of the international value chain of the iPod has clearly demonstrated the discrepancy between trade performance and value creation across countries (Linden et al., 2009). Using firm-level information, the analysis showed that China was merely specialized in the assembly of the imported intermediates into the final product which is typically generating relatively little value. The largest part of the value creation throughout the production process was done and captured by the producers of high value components (United States and Japan) and the seller of the iPod (Apple in the United States). The iPod example shows that the concept of competitiveness may sometimes need to be assessed at a detailed level, in order to fully understand what drives the international performance of countries."(24)

 This is how a "double count" is made in international trade, which distorts the correct estimation of international economic relations.

THE US IMPERIALISTS HAVE TAKEN ADVANTAGE FROM THE CAPITAL EXPORTS
The data previously mentioned, is a clear example of how the struggle for redistribution of the world among the great imperialist monopolies is given and, therefore, among the imperialist states, a report of a German imperialism institute, explains:

  "Hanson et al. (2005) examine the vertical fragmentation of activities around the globe by US multinational firms. They find that US headquarters’ demand for intermediate inputs imported from their affiliates abroad is higher when affiliates face lower wages for less skilled workers. This is in line with the hypothesis that production is offshored to affiliates in low cost locations and their output is then used by headquarters as inputs in the US. "
The US imperialists have taken advantage in the capital exports in this form, but is also practiced by multinationals from other imperialist countries like France, England, Germany, etc. As the report of that institute cited says:

"Close by Central and Eastern European countries and new European Union member states are attractive locations for German firms, and not only for low wage manufacturing activities. However, the value generated in these countries and flowing to German firms is still small …recording a much faster growth than other countries menbers of EU." (25)
Here we see the role of the EU market in the global competition, first, to German imperialism´s benefit in competition with the USA superpower and, second, how the inter-imperialist is given struggle in Europe, among the member countries of the called European Union (EU), where the one to take greater advantage is who wields hegemony in this imperialist association and third, how the division among imperialist countries and semi-colonial countries is given, and what are the spoils to be divided among them, the "countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the new member states". That is, in this case, the remains of the former Soviet social imperialism. "Third World that goes right into Europe" (Chairman Gonzalo).

Also in the arms industry and arms exports:
As for the arms industry, here is clearly shown how the imperialist forces are, the struggle among them and the objectives that go along with arms sales, the largest arms exporting countries are: 1. USA 2. Russia 3. Germany 4. France 5. China 6. Britain, Spain 7, 8. Italy.

"anyway is a snapshot, soon would likely dramatically grow the amount of weapons transfer, since currently as part of the policy (the report refers to the EU) as well as industry a full-scale arms exports offensive is being launched "(... ..) Said a consulted source.

YANKEES RECOVER IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
In the automotive industry, continuing with Ornellas´ study, we have:

"Despite all that has been argued about American decline in the automotive industry at the level of the largest companies, the group of US companies remained ahead until 2003. They were moved by the Japanese companies that maintained a share of total revenues close to 30% during all the period. German companies show a rising trend with 27% of total revenues in 2008. Chinese companies show significant progress since 2005, but its market share was only 3.7% in 2008, below from Italian and Korean." (26)

The companies that dominate the car sales world market by volume to January 1, 2013, are: Toyota (Japan) in the first place, followed by General Motors (Yankee) and Volkswagen (VW, Germany, Third place). The latter plans to move to first place in sales volume in 2018, with sales of 10 million cars of its different brands per year, currently, its sales in billions of Euros is 192.7, while that of Toyota is 196.9.(27)

As for the Chinese car companies, they produce cars in joint ventures where the foreign partner, as a part of their "technology transfer" investment package, provides the auto parts package for final assembly in China with little value added. Or in other cases a company is created to produce cars as Joint Ventures, for example Chinese-Israeli, and auto parts (pack for self-assembly) comes from Austria and Canada (technology). But in the headlines it reads "Auto of Chinese production passes difficult test made by the EU"  (28).
The imperialist companies that dominate the global automotive market, are competing to fill a "gap" in the existing Chinese market with respect to small luxury cars and in India with small cars with affordable prices to the potential customers in those countries.

The greatest imperialist crisis: The vast socially produced wealth is constantly increasing, but this socially produced wealth is increasingly appropriated by a handful of big monopolists from the imperialist countries and by the third World countries´ great bourgeois of bureaucratic capitalism at the imperialist´s service. That is, increasing private appropriation of socially produced wealth (the socialization of production worldwide grows ever more steadily with the growth of monopolies and global activity, such as so-called "global production value chains ") and the increase of power throughout the world of the imperialists and their lackeys, with the result of increasing impoverishment and oppression of the masses in the imperialist countries and, to a much greater extent of the masses of the backward countries.
The result of all the progress and all the wealth: sharper and continuous (shorter cycles) economic crisis within the general and final crisis that overwhelms imperialism- the fiercest struggle (sometimes violent and sometimes not violent) among the finance capital monopolies and imperialist countries by exporting capital and goods; fiercer struggle for raw materials and other natural resources and cheap labor of oppressed countries.

Better objective conditions for the world revolution, the masses are rising in rebellion throughout the world - Further collapse of imperialism, complex series of wars in which imperialism will be definitely sweep away by world revolution- period of 50-100 years, stage of the strategic offensive of the world revolution, new great wave of revolution- wars of resistance and people´s wars which are strategically principal in perspective.
Development of the subjective conditions, hard struggle against revisionism, difficult, complex but tenacious struggle by the heroic fighter who leads the revolution: the Communist Party. The international proletariat and peoples of the world are advancing by embodying Maoism, generating Marxist-Leninist-Maoist militarized Communist Parties to initiate and develop people's war until obtaining worldwide people's war to finally sweep imperialism from the face of the Earth.

We say again, each new global economic crisis, cyclical crisis that happens within the general crisis of imperialism leads to a sharper struggle for markets around the world through the "economic territory", becoming acuter the contention.
For example,  the bad situation in the Southern Europe markets, Volkswagen´s traditional markets where it operates with some daughters companies and with some brands (Seat for example), makes the struggle sharper to expand their market shares in countries like the imperialist China and semi colonial India, that although are also affected by the economic cycle and the general crisis, have a "car market on development because of  the contained consumption " and they seek to satisfy with small cars appropriate to their consumption ability, as seen before.

The same automotive monopoly, VW and its daughter company "Audi", who in turn has its businesses in Hungary, Belgium, Spain, India, China and Indonesia, expands its capital and commodities exports like this:
"In 2016 a new factory in Mexico will begin operation. And quickly there will also roll in the production line Audi cars in Brazil. The head of the Board of Audi, Rupert Stadler and the head of Production will meet on Tuesday in Brasilia with Chairman Dilma Rousseff, to close the deal for the construction of two variants of the Audi A3 model in Curitiba (Brazil), after many months of negotiations. Stadler wants to increase the sales volume by 2020 to two million cars –by the end of this year the 1.5 billion cars mark is expected to be passed. Brazil is in this strategy an important part (...) From the logistics center in Diusburg the A3 model auto parts are to be sent by sea to South America. " (29)

 This is very important to show the economic essence of imperialism and bureaucrat capitalism. But how will this hit the news? Surely doing great propaganda of the "industrial development of Brazil in an industry such as the automotive one".
But in relation to this direct investment, there is another story in the same magazine issue, which must be related, to show how the link is made between imperialist finance capital and the government of the imperialist country, representing those interests and, on the other hand, the role of semi-feudal and semi-colonial country´s government serving those interests, the bureaucratic capitalism, in this case Brazil´s.

The news is: "The fall in prices of raw materials, the depressing growth rate, a shaky housing market and rising inflation have disenchanted the economic miracle country: Brazil. The Falling value of the Bonds and the Shares are the consequence. But now, after the collapse of the emerging countries, a very promising speculation possibility opens for risk-lovers investors: such as Real Brazilian currency bonds issued by the Credit Institution for Reconstruction (KfW, for its acronym in German ). Still until spring (in the Northern Hemisphere, our note) bonds were rated 100 percent, and then fell in July to 91 percent. At this time these bonds are at 92.30 percent of their value. Having a 9.4 percent yield for each year running up to March 2016. The loss in the course of the bonds (ie Brazilians "sovereign bonds" ¡"sovereign"! how can it be?, our note ) is due in part to confusion. Because behind the Real-Bond is not the emerging country Brazil (as you will see now the media use the term "emerging" quite ironically, our note), whose rating by Standard & Poor's in June as debtor has a "negative" observation (where the BBB rating always mean investment grade). Bonds´ guarantee is the federal development bank KfW, and it has - as the Federal Republic of German- the maximum AAA rating. With this should be ensuring that the bonds at their spire date in March 2016 will be paid at 100 percent. An open flank is naturally currency. In 2010 the Brazilian Real was 46 cents per Euro, today it still is 33 cents of value. That makes 28 percent less in three years. To balance such bankruptcy, an annual yield of about nine percent would be needed - but that's just the yields of the KfW bond until 2016 ". (30)
Continuing the Ornellas study:
In the informatics industry:

"As in any other activity, the leadership of US originated corporates is solid, controlling between 65 and 80% of the income of this activity. Japanese companies have over 20% of the market share, but its presence is based on -and limited to - its domestic market and in the manufacture of peripheral equipment rather than more complex and profitable systems and products.

In informatics we found again the paradox that the "Made in China" of a growing number of software products and services does not represent the emergence of Chinese companies, but the export success of large US, Japan, Singapore and Taiwan transnationals, that leverage the economic and social conditions of the Chinese territory to internationalize their productions. “ (31)
Here, it´s worth to make a brief comment on the quotation, in the part pointing to Singapore and Taiwan, clarifying that these countries have bureaucratic capitalism and its companies are subject to the "holding system" mainly of large Yankees or Japanese monopolies,  as we have seen.

As we will see below, as for China and its "export model", it is in full deflation, since the growth in exports that occurred between 2003 and 2007 had an average annual growth of 30%, then went in 2011 to 19%, has declined to an average of 9.2% in the first eight months of 2013, and lastly the growth forecasts for the end of year fell to 7.8% and are now at 7.0 percent (falling slope). Domestic consumption in China is about 36% of GDP while in the United States is 70% of GDP. And this despite the huge injections of credit from the Chinese government to its economy. All this, in advance, shows the deformation of the Chinese economy´s growth.
In conclusion, from what has been explained up to now about the inter imperialist competition, the monopolies of Yankee imperialism keeps its dominance over its competitor, the monopolies from other imperialist countries in Asia or Europe. The Social imperialist Chinese companies are still far behind, as the aforementioned study notes:

"In general, companies from China show significant growth but are still well below the most powerful transnational corporations, particularly in the studied activities ".

 About the "Transnational" or "multinational" ´s property:

In this regard, when we study the penetration of imperialist capital in other imperialist countries or in oppressed countries, we must always keep in mind what Lenin teaches us: "we must devote  special attention" to the holding system", according to which "the parent company " exercises dominion of the "subsidiaries" that it´s enough to own "40% of shares" of the "parent company" to exercise control over it and over its subsidiaries, because the scattered actions only serve to "reinforce the power of the financial oligarchy."(32)  In the struggle among the imperialist monopolies over the division of the world, the spoils are the Third World (main contradiction), a number of associations are woven to accommodate each other and dominate the world and consequently with this to dived it among the imperialist countries (third contradiction).
Continuing on, in the aforementioned study, though it lacks to disaggregate the "European investors", there is important data on how the fight among the imperialist monopolies is given, as to one aspect of this "holding system." The study reads:

"To observe the evolution of these processes, we selected 94 companies operating in the fourteen activities with greater weight within five hundred largest companies in the world. Taking as a criterion the revenues and profits performance, we considered these 94 companies as global leaders. Thanks to the "One Banker” database of the consulting firm Thomson, we determined the holders of these leading companies, for the year 2008, were 5,231 stoke holders who report owning shares for a total value of 3.8 billion. The first feature that jumps out is the high concentration that is achieved when reducing the stoke holders to those with investments of 1000 million dollars or more; 332 actors handled 3.4 billion, ie 90% of the total. With respect to the international hierarchy, we note that more investors are based in the United States. There are 170 firms that manage investments for 1.8 billion and represent 48% of the total. The 114 investors from Europe hold shares of the leading companies for $ 1.1 billion, representing 29.4% of the total. In this group the investors based in the UK  stand out and handle 10.5% of the total value of the shares. The shares of Asia are mainly explained by the shareholding of the Chinese telecommunications giant, China Mobile, whose capital is held by the China Mobile Hong Kong (BVI) Limited holding, luckily this investment does not affect the internationalization of property. From Japan there are twenty investors who own shares worth 116,000 million, representing 3% of total reported value.
This first approach reveals that capitalism, seen from the perspective of the ownership of the giant corporations, is strongly regionalized. The capital of the companies from a region is in the hands of financiers and shares buyers in the same region. Certainly there is the phenomenon of internationalization of the property, but it has a marginal character, without a decisive foreign presence, at least in respect to major corporations ". (33)

When it says that "it is strongly regionalized", like is clear from the quote as a whole, it cannot be hidden that most of these "giant corporations" are Yankee imperialist capital, then British, Japanese, etc. From other sources we have the following data:

The largest monopolistic firms by market value:
Here we are referring to the market price of the monopoly companies in the stock market. In September 2009, in the list of the top ten there were only three from US.  American-Exxon Mobil, Microsoft and Walmart, the list was dominated by the giant Chinese state enterprises. "Today, nine out of the ten most valued companies are American. The country had not dominated for a decade. If we take a look at the first 50 firms, the American part is much lower. But that part easily passes 50% and has recently begun to grow (...) On September 2 Verizon, a telecommunications New York based company, said it wanted to take complete control of the wireless branch (...) On the following days, Microsoft announced it was purchasing the struggling industry Nokia phone. Which had been, in the previous thirteen years, the 16th largest firm worldwide. Now America dominates the wireless industry (...) more than half of the firms located in the 11th to the 30th place in ranking are American. " (34)

Then, the development of the struggle among the monopolies and therefore, among a handful of imperialist countries shows that US imperialism maintains its hegemony and completely denies all these thesis of imperialism´s beautifiers, of the "dependency relationships among countries", they try to hide the true nature of these relations, ie domination and violence and present a distorted reality of the current development of imperialism in its period of collapse and sweeping away.

 THE REVISIONIST´S DREAM IS TO TURN SOCIALIMPERIALIST CHINA IN A SUPERPOWER TO CONTEST FOR WORLD HEGEMONY

We have to begin to analyze this Chinese development, which is so highly praised, so then we can relate and understand it framed by the entire global economy and show what is in fact happening.  But we cannot get clarity about the global economy if we do not see the current reality of imperialist exploitation of the oppressed countries, the vast majority of which are semi-feudal and semi-colonial countries where bureaucratic capitalism develops, that’s why we deal with this first.

We can not be misled, the reactionary and opportunistic academics, as their imperialist bosses, mix different concepts to confuse. As happens with the BRICS, these are countries that have nothing in common among them, rather than being exporters of raw materials or maquila goods. Under this heading, it is intended to put under a common denominator oppressed countries with a nuclear superpower, Russia; deliberately confusing the concepts of economic growth and economic development; they mixed imperialist countries that show that are behind in their internal economic process, such as Russia and China, with semi-feudal and semi-colonial countries where bureaucratic capitalism develops, such as Brazil, India or South Africa.

HOW THAT CHINA IS AN EMERGING COUNTRY?
That is a name set by investment banks to classify countries according to the opportunities of countries for financial speculation. That, therefore, tries to deny the division of the world between oppressors and oppressed countries and China as an imperialist country belongs to the first named countries. That also does not take into account the particularity of this imperialist country; namely that China was a socialist country that after the counterrevolutionary coup of Teng in 1976, undertook the capitalist road (restoration).

 With the counterrevolutionary revisionist blow came the change of the proletarian leadership by the revisionist leadership, the party line changed and so it became a fascist party, the dictatorship of the proletariat become a bourgeois dictatorship and a fascist government was established, and the PLA and people's war to defend the peoples and proletariat were abandoned, and the army changed character and a bourgeois military line was imposed. All of this to serve two objectives: internally, the restoration of capitalism and the total dismantling of socialism and deletion of all the conquests of the proletariat and the people; change to a capitalist China in the time of dominance of monopolies and finance capital, in this case to a socialimperialist China; and, externally, from the beginning the revisionist, with Teng at the head, set out to turn China into an imperialist superpower in the century to come. This is their claim and tendency, i.e. the revisionist dream.
THE FINAL BANKRUPTCY OF CHINESE REVISIONIST IS INEVITABLE

But, we have to consider the opposite trends, as Lenin teaches us. What history has seen so far, in the ingoing era of imperialism and proletarian revolution, is that revisionism always gets bankrupt, regardless of what they do, that´s how they will end up and that´s how these new "emperors" would end.
The old revisionism sank with the First World War; the second revisionism of Khrushchev to Gorbachev sank without world war, the revisionist USSR imploded. The Chinese revisionists are in serious trouble, the struggle within, among groups and cliques, is sordid but sharp, and what is central to the revolution, is that the oppression of the bourgeoisie over the proletariat in China is becoming more and more unbearable, 1% of the big bourgeoisie owns 60% of the national wealth, while 750 million people live in the countryside, most in poverty and backwardness, with the consequence of the of the internal migration problem, there are 260 million footloose workers, that although subjected to the vilest super exploitation produce a super surplus value for the large bourgeois revisionists, workers that are, for that reason, a great potential for the revolutionary struggle of the proletariat to do the counter-restoration. These 260 million workers are only one part, the poorest, most deep and profound class, of that immense mass that makes up the proletariat in China. See that since the fall of the Manchu empire no one has been able to govern China quietly for long.  All of this leads the proletariat in China to reconstitute their party and carry forward the counter-restoration through people's war.

 Also, we need to keep in mind that the restoration was fostered by imperialism and, shortly after the anti-communist coup, US imperialism agreed with the Chinese revisionists, to promote their exports to the United States with the implementation of the most favored country clause. This is a special protection for Chinese goods entering the US market, passed by Congress as an amendment to the trade law, which is renewed annually; in exchange for special treatment to Yankee companies (Yankee transnationals) to partner with Chinese enterprises in Joint Ventures). All of this within the process of dismantling socialism and the restoration of capitalism, under the revisionist Teng Xiao-Ping´s damn slogan of the "four modernizations"(35).

 The Joint Ventures were the most significant "participation" method of the imperialist capital in China since 1977. Another was the establishment of the "special economic zones" such as Shenchen, Chunchai, Shant-ou and Hsiamen. In these, the establishment of imperialist capital companies was allowed. "They have emerged as a result of the policy followed by Deng Xiao-ping, of reform and opening".  In these "zones", the Chinese revisionists put at imperialist capital ´s service the corresponding infrastructure and cheap and disciplined labor, where the imperialist enterprises should make modern factories. These "zones" would also serve as a bridge to Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan.
While thousands of Chinese were sent to study in the imperialist countries, mainly the United States, the agriculture was de-collectivized to increase cheap labor; causing the exodus from the countryside, as we have already mentioned, currently, as a consequence of which, to mention just a symptom, there are more than 260 million "footloose" workers in the cities, migrants from the countryside, subject to the worst operating conditions. "With the establishment of the 'socialist market economy', industrial production, under a central plan, fell to a minimum; in 1995, it comprised only 10% of what it used to be ". (36)

 THE CHINESE REVISIONISM PRACTICES THE DAMN TENG´S "THREE WORLDS THEORY"
As we see, the economic process of the revisionist China, from the beginning goes hand by hand with imperialism, mainly Yankee, closely linked to the needs of Yankee monopoly finance capital and the North American market. Why?

Remember that it was Teng who proposed his "Theory of the Three Worlds" to lag behind one of the two superpowers. According the bourgeois commentators, the Chinese revisionists with the sinister Teng at the helm, learn the lessons from the problems of the restoration of capitalism in the USSR that followed a slower "privatization" path and since 1998, the capitalist management of the state companies was declared as a model, the issue of shares and private enterprise as good at the service of socialism was authorized. The Chinese revisionists boosted since the beginning what has been called "economic liberalization" under the slogan of "the four liberalizations" for which they have to open the country to imperialist capital. While at the same time, subjecting the proletariat to the hardest fascist oppression.
But the Chinese revisionists, despite their convergence with the US imperialists, don´t have the same interests since they are rivals; the interest of the Chinese revisionists, always has been to finish with socialism and the proletarian dictatorship, fast forward on the path of capitalism, become a superpower to fight for world hegemony; and the interests of US imperialism, has always been to end the proletarian dictatorship and socialism for then conquering this huge potential market, while continuing their usual plan of the division of China, as history shows.

 Without losing sight, what was exposed on China and in connection therewith, have also shown briefly, in the part corresponding to the bureaucratic capitalism, how the imperialism implemented their plans for world domination. When addressing the economic development history in Southeast Asia and the rest of Asia, we see that what the US imperialism did in china, when the conditions were right, with the Teng revisionism´s anti-communist coup, was to further implement the hegemonic economic plan that had already been in place to serve the restoration in China.
FINAL CRISIS OF "CHINESE MODEL" AND THE "REFORMS" TO COMPLETE IT, ARE ITS FINAL RUSH TO RUIN

On these notes, we have first seen the economic base of the struggle among the imperialists, but previously, in another part of these notes, we have gone over the Marxist-Leninist- Maoist position and viewpoint on bureaucratic capitalism, to understand the development of imperialism and its worldwide FDI, especially in Asia, ie the economic base of the main contradiction. Then we must relate the growth of FDI in China and the development of the external sector of the economy as a "global maquila" or "global export platform". Above all, We have to see the specific nature of the imperialist capital exports of China, its difference from the capital exports of other imperialist countries, that has to do with the fact that it is an imperialist country of late development, product of the destruction of a more advanced economy, the socialist economy.
Is not the case of Japan and Germany in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, that because of its later development,  were a young capitalism with respect to France and England (old capitalism), hence they exceeded them before the first World War, as will be shown here,  crushing what the ROL says.

In turn, the imperialist countries see China as a new market opening, therefore, through their investments, the monopolies and imperialist countries seek to win the competition to take the best positions at the site of the development of this “potential gigantic market". Potential market, because it still has no effective demand comparable to the size of its population: because of low incomes and restrained consumption (high savings rate). This becomes a negative phenomenon because it is subtracted from the internal reproduction process. In addition, the so-called national saving has had a large increase in the last two decades, but instead of using it to develop the economy and life of the masses, ie in the productive and households consumption, the revisionists thugs (capitrostes, translation note) in the state and economy power use it for financial speculation of all kinds, such as buying US Treasuries bonds.
The bourgeois economists find that China cannot invest this great mass of money at home because of the backwardness of the economy doesn´t have a place for it. The truth is that they are not going to invest that abundant capital in the development of the country and the welfare of the masses, but it will be exported looking for super-profits and buying US Treasuries bonds to keep the relationship dollar-Remin in benefit of their exports, to ensure foreign investment and because there isn´t a free Remin convertibility. 

Such was confirmed by what was addressed on this regard on the Third Plenum of the CC (the XVIII Congress of the Chinese revisionist party) and the resulting new plans of the Chinese government to "stop the exportation model" to look for the expansion of domestic consumption. It is necessary to note that after the Teng´s anti-communist coup, China began the "reforms of the market economy" against the socialist planned economy, "reforms" that were formalized in the 1998 Plenum of the CC, which have developed over a long period and " firmly took place in the early 90s; Deng Xiaoping's " trip to the south "of is a noticeable mark in the economic reforms in China. Such an event took place in 1992. " (37)
The revisionist party new leader, just installed last year, traveled to the US and the countries of the EU, for what reason? To reassure the other imperialists that in the Chinese economic policy there won´t suffer fundamental changes. As we have said, by class nature the Chinese social imperialists are not on behalf of investing the large earned profits in the development of agriculture, in the balanced development of the country and in meeting the masses´ needs, on the contrary, each time they dismiss more people from the countryside to the cities through economic and extra economic means, to concentrate large armies of cheap labor for the maquila work of the imperialist capital; as all other imperialist they export their capital to more profitable locations for speculative imperialist super profits overseas. Within the approved plans at the Third Plenum of the Chinese revisionists party, there are measures aimed at the expropriation of peasant lands in favor of state monopolies or of native or foreign individuals to "empty the field." For all this, we said in advance that this revisionist meeting sought to reconcile the interests of the big bureaucratic bourgeoisie with those of the faction of the big bourgeoisie that has seen increase its economic power with the past "exportation boom" that has lasted for more than two decades and together with representatives of foreign imperialist capital propagate the need for "greater openness of the economy." So the struggle between the two factions of the big bourgeoisie will continue and the struggle of the proletariat and the peasantry will increase by taking the path of proletarian counter-restoration, which passes through the reconstitution of the Party to follow the Chairman Mao´s slogan ¡Back to the Ching kahn mountains!, ie the path of people's war to counter-restore.

 As stated above, in the face of the exhaustion of their "exportation model", the Chinese social imperialists are seeking to reorganize and develop its banking, finance and general services sector. That is the core of the current "economic reforms" that the revisionists, usurping the CPC,have launched .
Pondering on information, such as one that says: "With the 'economic liberalization' during the 80s, the Chinese leaders established special economic zones in areas such as Shenzhen" (...) where the materials and components imports free of customs duties was authorized. That was a great success (...) to meet the global demand for inexpensive clothing and toys, made in China, in the global workshop ". (38)

Where this did led them to? This led China to its dependence on the world market and its crisis, the current "exportation model" of assembled products and raw materials -and in turn importer of intermediate products and raw materials, which has meant big profits for a handful of the large native and foreign bourgeoisie and has brought great calamities for the vast majority of the proletariat and people and large deformation of the social-imperialist country. It’s similar to the social imperialist Soviet model that since the 60s became dependent on oil and gas exports and then definitely sank.
The global crisis that began in 2008 with a prolonged recession in many parts of the world and low growth in others, which continues today, has shown "the limits of that model" and "the impossibility to lead a sustained growth ", as attested by neoKeynesian bourgeois economists , in a purported neo-Keynesians manifesto, that prescribe to save the imperialist world economy the combination of the free market with the expansive state intervention in the economy (39).

For everyone it is clear that this "model" is already worn out. So the Chinese revisionists are forced to "reforms" that are nothing more than to "complete" the model followed up to the date. That is, what they want with the current "reforms" that are being launched is a scape. Continuing with the Wall Street Journal note we get more clarify about it, it adds: "While the plan for Shanghai´s FTZ (Free Trade Zone, our note) remains vague, it essentially combines four existing similar areas in the city and adheres some services liberalization (...) the old gradual regional experimentation program of 80 is little adapted to today challenges.  A strong reform agenda is what is needed now."
This means that for the US´ finance capital media (WSJ), the situation in China is at least difficult, they cannot go halfway. They want the revisionists to do more "liberalization" of the economy, but that would be to give up all to the other faction of the big bourgeoisie and a potential implosion similar to that of the former Soviet Union.

 THE ANATOMY OF EXPORTS OF CHINA

Therefore it is necessary to study China's exports, make out its anatomy, that’s why to save ourselves from long comments, we underlined in the presented quotations the most important aspects that have to do with the global economic role of China, ie the role playing as an imperialist country within the imperialist economy, which explains more than a thousand words the "Chinese economic miracle" and why China acts as it does on the world stage.
...........................
(To Be Continued)

 (7) Raúl Ornellas*, THE CAPITALIST CRISIS, END OF THE US HEGEMONY? A STUDY FROM THE COMPETITION BETWEEN TNCs *This work is part of the project of investigation PAPIIT “TNCs and natural resources in Latin America” (IN-306609-3), page 209 and ss.

   (8) Lenin, op. Cit., This process says: "The finance capital has created the epoch of monopolies. And monopolies introduce everywhere monopolistic principles: the utilization of “connection” for profitable transactions takes the place of competition on the open market leads.(...) The export of capital becomes a means to export of goods (...) the monopolist capitalist associations, cartels, syndicates and Trust first divided the home market among themselves (...) but the domestic market, under capitalism, is inevitably bound up with the foreign market. Capitalism long ego created a world market. As the exports of capital increased and as the foreign and colonial connections and 'spheres of influence' of the big monopolistic associations are expanded in all ways, things “naturally” gravitated towards an international agreements among association, and towards the formation of international cartels. This is a new stage of world concentration of capital and production "(...)" Some bourgeois writers (now joined by K. Kautsky (...) have expressed the opinion that international cartels, being one of the striking expressions of the internationalization of capital, give the hope of maintaining peace among peoples. theoretically, this opinion is absolutely absurd, while in practice it is sophistry a dishonorable defense of the worst opportunism. International cartels show to what point capitalist monopolies have developed and the object of the struggle between the various capitalist associations This last circumstance is the most important; it alone shows us the historic-economic meaning of what is taking place, for the form of the struggle may and do constantly chance (...) but the substance of the struggle, its class content, positively cannot change, while in classes exist (...) the epoch of latest stage of capitalism shows us that certain relationships among capitalist associations grow up, based on the economic division of the world: while parallel to and in connection with it, certain relationships grow up between political associations, between the states, on the basis of the territorial division of the world, the struggle for “spheres of influence"

(9) Raul Ornelas, ob. Cit.

 (10) Kurt Hübner, Der Globalisierungskomplex, Research, Berlin, editorial Sigma, 1998.

  (11)Raul Ornelas, ob. Cit., P. 211 et seq.

  (12)The Wall Street Journal, December 12, 2013, europe edition, page 28.

    (13)The Economist, 27TH-21ST september 2013, p. 22.

  (14)Michel Husson, “UN PUR CAPITALISMO” , 2008, Edition Page deux, Lausanne Suiza.

  (15)Ornellas, ob. cit., p. 214 et seq.

  (16)Ornellas, ob. cit., p. 217.

 (17)  Günter Nooke, commissioned by German Chancellor staff at the Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, "We should not be innocent, Africa / The rules of the free market do not determine the access to raw materials, but a game of interests- Germany needs a clear strategy to be credible and successful in securing its industrial interests”.  In Wirtschafttswoche 16.09.2013, p. 31.

 (18) Lenin, op. Cit.

(19) Ornellas, ob. Cit., Pág.217.

  (20)The Wall Street Journal, Hair of the dog`Cure for Banks?, september 20-22, 2013, pág. 4.

   (21)  Ornellas, ob. cit., p. 217.

  (22)Ornellas, ob. Cit., P. 222.

  (23)Ornellas, ob. cit., p. 222 et seq

(24) Ministry of Commerce of Canada, Global Value Chains: Impacts and Implications, Canada Trade Policy Research 2011.

 (25) Ministry of Commerce of Canada, op. cit.

(26)  Ornellas, ob. cit., p. 225

  (27)Wirtschafts Woche, N.38, 16.09.2013.

(28) Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 26.09.2013.

  (29)AUDI, Standlers Samba-Parti, in the same number of Wirtschafts Woche cited above, p. 9.

   (30)Wirtschafts Woche, 38, 16.9.2013, p a05, KfW / Real Bond Bet on Brazil.

  (31) Ornellas, ob. cit., p. 225 et seq.

 (32) Lenin, op. cit : " Paramount importance attaches to the "holding system"(…) The German economist, Heymann, probably the first to call attention to this matter, describes the essence of it in this way:

"The head of the concern controls the principal company (literally: the "mother company"); the latter reigns over the subsidiary companies ("daughter companies") which in their turn control still other subsidiaries ("grandchild companies"), etc. In this way, it is possible with a comparatively small capital to dominate immense spheres of production. Indeed, if holding 50 per cent of the capital is always sufficient to control a company, the head of the concern needs only one million to control eight million in the second subsidiaries. And if this 'interlocking' is extended, it is possible with one million to control sixteen million, thirty-two million, etc." (…) divide a single business into several parts by setting up 'daughter companies' — or by annexing them. The advantages of this system for various purposes— legal and illegal — are so evident that big companies which do not employ it are quite the exception. (…) the "democratization of capital", the strengthening of the role and significance of small scale production, etc., is, in fact, one of the ways of increasing the power of the financial oligarchy. (…) But the "holding system" not only serves enormously to increase the power of the monopolists; it also enables them to resort with impunity to all sorts of shady and dirty tricks to cheat the public, because formally the directors of the "mother company" are not legally responsible for the "daughter company", which is supposed to be "independent",and through the medium of which they can "pull off" anything. (…)A monopoly, once it is formed and controls thousands of millions, inevitably penetrates into every sphere of public life, regardless of the form of government and all other "details". (…)The supremacy of finance capital over all other forms of capital means the predominance of the rentier and of the financial oligarchy; it means that a small number of financially "powerful" states stand out among all the rest. (…) It is particularly important to examine the part which the export of capital plays in creating the international network of dependence on and connections of finance capital”.

  (33)Ornellas, ob. cit., page 229 et seq.

  (34)The Economist, 21 september 27TH ST-2013, p. 21.

  (35)China Today, January 1979, p. 79.

 (36) Heilmann, S., Die Partei Chinas Kommunistische vor dem Zusammenbruch? (The Communist Party of China to bankruptcy?), Bericht des BioSt Nr. 58/1995.

  (37)The Wall Street Journal, October 1, 2013, p. 28.

  (38)WSJ cited above.

 (39) "Act now! The Global Manifesto for the Salvation of the Economy "by Flassbeck, Davidson, Galbraith and others, Editorial Westend, Frankfurt /